The Civil War: The Third Year, 1863 (2013)

Sept. 17

Overview: Women in the War Years

We will begin by overviewing the war, reviewing 1861-1862, noting what we will deal with in 1863, and then looking to 1864-1865. Women were constrained by the “cult of true womanhood” which also provided some ways to deceive fellow soldiers. At home, in the factories, on the farms, in the Sanitary Commission, in hospitals, north and south, women played key roles in both war efforts. Some fought, some spied, some nursed, some produced ammunition. It wasn’t only a “man’s war.”

Sept. 24

Emancipation, Freedom, and Black Troops

The war began over Union v. Southern Independence-Independence to preserve their “right” to own human property. By early 1862, emancipation was a logical war measure. The Preliminary Proclamation was issued on September 22 following the victory at Antietam on the 17th. Emancipation (proclaimed January 1, 1863) led to Freedmen and to the “US Colored Troops.” Why were blacks allowed to fight – in what had been a “white man’s war,” why and how well did they fight, and how did the south respond?

Oct. 1

The War in the East: Gettysburg

After Burnside’s “mud march,” “Fighting Joe” Hooker took command of the Army of the Potomac and led it into the Battle at Chancellorsville – where “Stonewall” Jackson was killed. Lee’s Pennsylvania Campaign – an army level raid that turned into the greatest slave catching posse in US history – led to the not so chance encounter at Gettysburg. Lee screwed up here “by the numbers” and “Old Snapping Turtle” Meade played his hand right. For the rest of the year, the east is relatively quiet.

Oct. 8

The War on the Mississippi – the Vicksburg Campaign

In late 1862, Grant began the first Vicksburg Campaign. A failure, it was soon followed by the second campaign. Thanks to Confederate command failures in the west, Grant was able to trap and besiege Pemberton, who surrendered on July 4, 1863.

Oct. 15

Religion and the War

The south is conventionally viewed as the more religious region, and Davis the religious president. (Did Lincoln believe in a God?) Many religious groups divided over slavery and the war, helping further divide the nation and helping bring the war. Even though many Americans were not church-goers, almost all were religiously literate to some extent, and had at least nominal attachment to some faith. Confederates had a Revival in 864 – but so did the Union armies in the west. In this war, we see the first Jewish Chaplains and the first real delineation of the duties of chaplains.

Oct. 22

The Tullahoma-Chattanooga Campaign

The battle of Stone’s River in 1862/1863 began the second Chattanooga campaign. For months, Rosecrans sat at Murfreesboro, Lincoln freeted, and Bragg waited. When Rosie moved – the Tullahoma Campaign – he moved quickly and, almost bloodlessly, cleared the Rebs out of Middle Tennessee. Taking Chattanooga, he over-reached at Chickamauga, and was besieged in Chattanooga. Grant, Sherman, Thomas, and Hooker broke the siege on November 25.

SC3 day n.pdf